Ongoing Research

The research being done to test the level of immersion with new VR           programs is called the Cold pressor test 


Ongoing Research

The research being done to test the level of immersion with new VR           programs is called the Cold pressor test 

the Cold Pressor Test (aka ice bucket challenge for science)!

This is a study that has been used for over 50 years to study the affects of different interventions on discomfort. It has been used in hundreds of publications with thousands of adults and over 1700 children. Using this simple test, we can validate the "potency" of immersion with different software programs and different types of hardware.

Links to Publications done with Cold Pressor Test

Dahlquist LM, Herbert LJ, Weiss KE, Jimeno M (2010) Virtual-reality distraction and cold-pressor pain tolerance: does avatar point of view matter? 

Dahlquist LM, McKenna KD, Jones KK, Dillinger L, Weiss KE, Ackerman CS (2007) Active and passive distraction using a head-mounted display helmet: effects on cold pressor pain in children. 

Dahlquist LM, Weiss KE, Clendaniel LD, Law EF, Ackerman CS, McKenna KD (2009) Effects of videogame distraction using a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in children.

Dahlquist LM, Weiss KE, Law EF, Sil S, Herbert LJ, Horn SB, Wohlheiter K, Ackerman CS (2010) Effects of videogame distraction and a virtual reality type head-mounted display helmet on cold pressor pain in young elementary school-aged children. 

Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Gutierrez-Martinez O, Cabas-Hoyos K (2011) Interactive and passive virtual reality distraction: effects on presence and pain intensity.

Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Gutierrez-Martinez O, Loreto-Quijada D, Nieto-Luna R (2012) The use of virtual reality for coping with pain with healthy participants. 

Gutierrez-Martinez O, Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Loreto-Quijada D (2011) Control over the virtual environment influences the presence and efficacy of a virtual reality intervention on pain. 

Johnson S, Coxon M (2016) Sound can enhance the analgesic effect of virtual reality. 

Law EF, Dahlquist LM, Sil S, Weiss KE, Herbert LJ, Wohlheiter K, Horn SB (2011) Videogame distraction using virtual reality technology for children experiencing cold pressor pain: the role of cognitive processing. 

Loreto-Quijada D, Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Gutierrez-Martinez O, Nieto R (2013) Testing a virtual reality intervention for pain control. 

Loreto-Quijada D, Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Nieto R, Gutierrez-Martinez O, Ferrer-Garcia M, Saldana C, Fuste-Escolano A, Liutsko L (2014) Differential effects of two virtual reality interventions: distraction versus pain control. 

Rutter CE, Dahlquist LM, Weiss KE (2009) Sustained efficacy of virtual reality distraction. The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society

Sil S, Dahlquist LM, Thompson C, Hahn A, Herbert L, Wohlheiter K, Horn S (2014) The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain. 

Vigil JM, Torres D, Wolff A, Hughes K (2014) Exposure to virtual social stimuli modulates subjective pain reports. Pain research & management


Virtual Reality Research in dentistry

Virtual Reality Research in dentistry


Al-Khotani, A., Bello, L. A., & Christidis, N. (2016). Effects of audiovisual distraction on children’s behaviour during dental treatment: a randomized controlled clinical trial. 

Asl Aminabadi N, Erfanparast L, Sohrabi A, Ghertasi Oskouei S, Naghili A (2012) The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. 

Bentsen, B., Wenzel, A., & Svensson, P. (2003). Comparison of the effect of video glasses and nitrous oxide analgesia on the perceived intensity of pain and unpleasantness evoked by dental scaling. European Journal of Pain (London, England),

Fakhruddin, K. S., El Batawi, H., & Gorduysus, M. O. (2015). Effectiveness of audiovisual distraction eyewear and computerized delivery of anesthesia during pulp therapy of primary molars in phobic child patients. 

Frere CL, Crout R, Yorty J, McNeil DW (2001) Effects of audiovisual distraction during dental prophylaxis. 

Furman E, Jasinevicius TR, Bissada NF, Victoroff KZ, Skillicorn R, Buchner M (2009) Virtual reality distraction for pain control during periodontal scaling and root planing procedures.

Guinot Jimeno F, Mercade Bellido M, Cuadros Fernandez C, Lorente Rodriguez AI, Llopis Perez J, Boj Quesada JR (2014) Effect of audiovisual distraction on children's behaviour, anxiety and pain in the dental setting. 

Hoffman HG, Garcia-Palacios A, Patterson DR, Jensen M, Furness T, 3rd, Ammons WF, Jr. (2001) The effectiveness of virtual reality for dental pain control: a case study. 

Kaur R, Jindal R, Dua R, Mahajan S, Sethi K, Garg S (2015) Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of audio and audiovisual distraction aids in the management of anxious pediatric dental patients. 

Nuvvula S, Alahari S, Kamatham R, Challa RR (2015) Effect of audiovisual distraction with 3D video glasses on dental anxiety of children experiencing administration of local analgesia: a randomised clinical trial. 

Padrino-Barrios C, McCombs G, Diawara N, De Leo G (2015) The Use of Immersive Visualization for the Control of Dental Anxiety During Oral Debridement. 

Prabhakar AR, Marwah N, Raju OS (2007) A comparison between audio and audiovisual distraction techniques in managing anxious pediatric dental patients. 

Ram D, Shapira J, Holan G, Magora F, Cohen S, Davidovich E (2010) Audiovisual video eyeglass distraction during dental treatment in children. 

Tanja-Dijkstra K, Pahl S, White MP, Andrade J, Qian C, Bruce M, May J, Moles DR (2014) Improving dental experiences by using virtual reality distraction: a simulation study. 

Wiederhold MD, Gao K, Wiederhold BK (2014) Clinical use of virtual reality distraction system to reduce anxiety and pain in dental procedures. 


Virtual Reality Research in Medicine

Virtual Reality Research in Medicine

This is just a sampling of the research publications that have been made using virtual reality. 


Botella, C., Garcia-Palacios, A., Vizcaíno, Y., Herrero, R., Baños, R. M., & Belmonte, M. A. (2013). Virtual reality in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a pilot study. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 

Faber, A. W., Patterson, D. R., & Bremer, M. (2013). Repeated use of immersive virtual reality therapy to control pain during wound dressing changes in pediatric and adult burn patients. Journal of Burn Care & Research : Official Publication of the American Burn Association

Garrett, B., Taverner, T., Masinde, W., Gromala, D., Shaw, C., Negraeff, M., & Garrett, Shaw, G. (2014). A Rapid Evidence Assessment of Immersive Virtual Reality as an Adjunct Therapy in Acute Pain Management in Clinical Practice. The Clinical Journal of Pain

Guo C, Deng H, Yang J (2015) Effect of virtual reality distraction on pain among patients with hand injury undergoing dressing change.

Hua Y, Qiu R, Yao WY, Zhang Q, Chen XL (2015) The Effect of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain Relief During Dressing Changes in Children with Chronic Wounds on Lower Limbs. Pain Manag Nurs

Hoffman, H. G., Chambers, G. T., Meyer, W. J., Arceneaux, L. L., Russell, W. J., Seibel, E. J., … Patterson, D. R. (2011). Virtual reality as an adjunctive non-pharmacologic analgesic for acute burn pain during medical procedures. 

Hoffman, H. G., Doctor, J. N., Patterson, D. R., Carrougher, G. J., & Furness, T. a. (2000). Virtual reality as an adjunctive pain control during burn wound care in adolescent patients. Pain

Hoffman, H. G., Patterson, D. R., Soltani, M., Teeley, A., Miller, W., & Sharar, S. R. (2009). Virtual Reality Pain Control during Physical Therapy Range of Motion Exercises for a Patient with Multiple Blunt Force Trauma Injuries. CyberPsychology & Behavior

Hoffman, H. G., Richards, T., Coda, B., Richards, A., & Sharar, S. R. (2003). The illusion of presence in immersive virtual reality during an fMRI brain scan. Cyberpsychology & Behavior : The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society

Hoffman, H. G., Richards, T. L., Van Oostrom, T., Coda, B. a, Jensen, M. P., Blough, D. K., & Sharar, S. R. (2007). The analgesic effects of opioids and immersive virtual reality distraction: evidence from subjective and functional brain imaging assessments.

Hoffman, H. G., Seibel, E. J., Richards, T. L., Furness, T. a, Patterson, D. R., & Sharar, S. R. (2006). Virtual reality helmet display quality influences the magnitude of virtual reality analgesia. The Journal of Pain : Official Journal of the American Pain Society

JahaniShoorab N, Ebrahimzadeh Zagami S, Nahvi A, Mazluom SR, Golmakani N, Talebi M, Pabarja F (2015) The Effect of Virtual Reality on Pain in Primiparity Women during Episiotomy Repair: A Randomize Clinical Trial. Iran J Med Sci

Jones T, Moore T, Choo J (2016) The Impact of Virtual Reality on Chronic Pain. PLoS One

Kipping, B., Rodger, S., Miller, K., & Kimble, R. M. (2012). Virtual reality for acute pain reduction in adolescents undergoing burn wound care: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries

Maani, C. V, Hoffman, H. G., Morrow, M., Maiers, A., Gaylord, K., McGhee, L. L., & DeSocio, P. a. (2011). Virtual reality pain control during burn wound debridement of combat-related burn injuries using robot-like arm mounted VR goggles. The Journal of Trauma

Malloy, K. M., & Milling, L. S. (2010). The effectiveness of virtual reality distraction for pain reduction: a systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review

Miller, K., Rodger, S., Kipping, B., & Kimble, R. M. (2011). A novel technology approach to pain management in children with burns: A prospective randomized controlled trial. Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries

Morris, L. D., Louw, Q. A., & Crous, L. C. (2010). Feasibility and potential effect of a low-cost virtual reality system on reducing pain and anxiety in adult burn injury patients during physiotherapy in a developing country. Burns

Nilsson, S., Karin, E., Hallqvist, C., Kokinsky, E., & Enskär, K. (2013). Active and passive distraction in children undergoing wound dressings. Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Schmitt, Y. Y. S., Hoffman, H. G. H., Blough, D. K. D., Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P., Soltani, M., … Sharar, S. R. (2011). A randomized, controlled trial of immersive virtual reality analgesia, during physical therapy for pediatric burns. Burns 

Shahrbanian, S., Ma, X., Aghaei, N., Korner-bitensky, N., Simmonds, M. J., Moshiri, K., & Simmonds1, M. J. (2012). Use of virtual reality ( immersive vs . non immersive ) for pain management in children and adults : A systematic review of evidence from randomized controlled trials.

Sharar SR, Alamdari A, Hoffer C, Hoffman HG, Jensen MP, Patterson DR (2016) Circumplex Model of Affect: A Measure of Pleasure and Arousal During Virtual Reality Distraction Analgesia. Games Health J

Svendsen, E. J., & Bjørk, I. T. (2014). Experienced Nurses’ Use of Non-Pharmacological Approaches Comprise More Than Relief From Pain. Journal of Pediatric Nursing.

Van Beugen, S., Ferwerda, M., Hoeve, D., Rovers, M. M., Spillekom-van Koulil, S., van Middendorp, H., & Evers, A. W. (2014). Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with chronic somatic conditions: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research

Villiger, M., Bohli, D., Kiper, D., Pyk, P., Spillmann, J., Meilick, B., … Eng, K. (2013). Virtual reality-augmented neurorehabilitation improves motor function and reduces neuropathic pain in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair